The small sized electronic chips have changed the world, and the way we live, drastically. From house hold appliances like microwave ovens and LCD televisions,digital cameras to aircraft, satellites and defense equipment, one cannot deny the fact that these devices have conquered the world.
It is very hard to imagine that 2000 million devices are packed inside the modern chips. The size of each device is of the order of 45 nano meter (which is as small as one thousandth thickness of human hair). The world would come to a stand still without these miniature devices.
The electronics industry has achieved a phenomenal growth over the last two decades, mainly due to the rapid advances in integration technologies, large-scale systems design – in short, due to the advent of VLSI(Very Large Scale Integration). The number of applications of integrated circuits in high-performance computing, telecommunications, medicine and consumer electronics has been rising steadily, and at a very fast pace. Typically, the required computational power (or, in other words, the intelligence) of these applications is the driving force for the fast development of this field.
Moore’s law describes a long-term trend in the history of computing hardware. The number of transistors that can be placed inexpensively on an integrated circuit has doubled approximately every two years.The trend has continued for more than half a century and is not expected to stop until 2015 or later.The capabilities of many digital electronic devices are strongly linked to Moore’s law: processing speed, memory capacity, sensors and even the number of size of pixels in digital cameras.All of these are improving at (roughly) exponential rates as well. This has dramatically increased the usefulness of digital electronics in nearly every segment of the world economy. Moore’s law is the driving force of technological and social change in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.